How To Electricity Works In Working Principle 2020

So let's start at the very basics and for that, we need totake a look at the atom.

All the materials weuse are made from atoms.

The materials are just different because the construction of their atoms are slightly different.

The atoms are made from three particles, two of which are found inside the nucleus and the third particle sits outside this.

At the center of theatom, we have the nucleus.

Inside the nucleus, we have the neutrons, which have no charge, andwe also have the protons, which are positively charged.

The neutrons and theprotons are much heavier than the electrons so thesewill stay within the nucleus.

Surround the nucleus are differentlayers of orbital shells.

The electrons flowalong these flight paths much like a satellite orbits our plant, except that the electrons travel at almost the speed of light.

The electrons are negatively charged and they are attractedto the positive charge of the protons.

The electrons orbit around the nucleus in these orbital shellsand there are a set numbers of how many electrons canbe in any one orbital shell.

The number of protons, neutrons,and electrons an atom has tells us which material it is.

Atoms hold on to theirelectrons very tightly, but some materials willhold on to them more tightly than others.

The outer-most shell isknown as the valence shell, and in this shell, some materials haveloosely bound electrons which can flow to other atoms.

Atoms which can pass electronsare called conductors and most metals are conductors.

On the other hand, atoms whichdo not have free electrons and so they can't passelectrons between other atoms are known as insulators.

Now, we can combine these materials to safely use electricity by having the conductor in the center, which allows electrons to move, but surround this with an insulator to restrict where they can flow to, i.e., not lead to us, which keeps us safe.

If we look inside a slice of copper cable at the free electronssurrounding the nucleus of the copper atom, you'llsee that the free electrons are able to move to

If we then connect thisslice of copper cable to a closed circuit with a power source, such as a battery, then thevoltage will force the electrons to move and these will then all flow in the same direction to try and get back to the other terminal of the battery.

When I say circuit,this just means the root which electrons could flow along between the two terminals,the positive and the negative, of a power source.

So we can add things into their path, like light bulbs, and thismeans that the electrons will have to pass throughthis in order to get to the other terminal. And so we can use this tocreate things such as light.

The circuit can either be open or closed. In a closed circuit,that means the electrons can flow around. And in an open circuit, thismeans that the electrons are not able to flow Voltage is a pushing force ofelectrons within a circuit.

The more pressure you have,the more water can flow. The more voltage you have,the more electrons can flow. Well, a volt is a joule per coulomb.

And a joule is a measurementof energy or work and a coulomb is a groupof flowing electrons.

We'll have a look at what a coulomb is in just a second though. So a nine volt batterycan provide nine joules of energy in the form of work or heat per group of electrons that flow from one side of the battery.

In this case, the current of electrons flow from one side of the battery through the LED lightbulb, which produces light, and then the electronsflow to the other side of the battery, therefore,nine joules of light and heat is produced by the light bulb.

When a circuit is closed, it means electrons can flow,and when the circuit is open, no electrons will flow.

We can measure the flow of electrons just like you can measure theflow of water through a pipe. To measure the flow of electrons, we use the unit of amp.

One amp means one coulomb per second and one coulomb is a group of electrons.

The group is incrediblylarge and is approximately six billion, 242 million,billion electrons, and that has to pass in one second for it to equal one amp.

That's why electrons are grouped together and just called amps, tomake it easier for engineers.

Resistance is a restrictionto the flow of electrons in a circuit. The wire which carries the electrons will naturally have some Resistance to the flow of electrons is different for each material.

And the temperature of the material can also change resistanceto the flow of electrons.

Electrical circuits usespecially designed components known as resistors topurposely restrict the flow of electrons.

This is either to protect other components from too many electrons flowing through it or it can also be usedto create light and heat, such as in an incandescent light bulb.

How To Electricity Works In Working Principle 2020 How To Electricity Works In Working Principle 2020 Reviewed by Adpcreation on July 21, 2020 Rating: 5

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